- Mesenchymal stem cells provide better results than hematopoietic precursors for the treatment of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 May 18;55(20):2244-53.
- Expanded human cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells salvage infarcted myocardium in rats with acute myocardial infarction. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010 May;37(5-6):551-6.
- Are purified or expanded cord blood-derived CD133+ cells better at improving cardiac function? Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010 Jan;235(1):119-29.
- Human umbilical cord-derived endothelial progenitor cells promote growth cytokines-mediated neorevascularization in rat myocardial infarction. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009 Mar 5;122(5):548-55.
- Optimal time for human umbilical cord blood cell transplantation in rats with myocardial infarction. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009 Dec 5;122(23):2833-9.
- Human cord blood progenitors with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity improve vascular density in a model of acute myocardial infarction. J Transl Med. 2010 Mar 9;8:24.
- Ex-vivo expanded umbilical cord blood stem cells retain capacity for myocardial regeneration. Circ J. 2010 Jan;74(1):188-94. Epub 2009 Nov 19.
Schlechta B, Wiedemann D, Kittinger C, Jandrositz A, Bonaros NE, Huber JC, Preisegger KH, Kocher AA.
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of human hematopoietic precursor cells (HPCs), a stem cell (SC) type that has been used in several trials for myocardial repair. A certain minimal number of cells is required for measurable regeneration and a major challenge of SC-based regenerative therapy constitutes ex-vivo expansion of the primitive cell compartment. The aim of this study was to investigate the ex-vivo expansion potential of UCB-derived HPCs and the ability of these expanded cells to migrate to the site of damage and improve ventricular function in a rodent model of myocardial infarction (MI).
METHODS AND RESULTS: UCB-derived HPCs, defined by coexpression of CD133 and CD34, were expanded using various cytokine combinations. MI was induced by left anterior descending artery ligation in nude rats. Cells were injected intravenously 2 days after infarction. The combination of SC factor, thrombopoietin, flt3-ligand and interleukin-6 was found to be the most effective for inducing proliferation of HPCs. The migratory capacity of expanded HPCs was similar to that of non-expanded HPCs and improvement of ejection fraction was significant in both groups, with a relative increase of >60%.
CONCLUSIONS: UCB-derived HPCs can be reproducibly expanded ex-vivo and retain their potential to improve cardiac function post-MI. (Circ J 2010; 74: 188 – 194).
- Cellular cardiac regenerative therapy in which patients? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2009 Aug;7(8):911-9.
- Mobilization of bone marrow-derived Oct-4+ SSEA-4+ very small embryonic-like stem cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Jan 6;53(1):1-9.
- Human cord blood mononuclear cells decrease cytokines and inflammatory cells in acute myocardial infarction. Stem Cells Dev. 2008 Dec;17(6):1207-19.
- Human cord blood cells and myocardial infarction: effect of dose and route of administration on infarct size. Cell Transplant. 2007;16(9):907-17.
- Human umbilical cord blood progenitor cells are attracted to infarcted myocardium and significantly reduce myocardial infarction size. Cell Transplant. 2006;15(7):647-58.
Armiñán A, Gandía C, García-Verdugo JM, Lledó E, Trigueros C, Ruiz-Saurí A, Miñana MD, Solves P, Payá R, Montero JA, Sepúlveda P.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to treat myocardial infarction (MI) in a model of permanent left descendent coronary artery (LDA) ligation in nude rats.
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of human CD34(+) cells and MSC has been proved to be effective in treating MI, but no comparative studies have been performed to elucidate which treatment prevents left ventricular (LV) remodelling more efficiently.
METHODS: Human bone marrow MSC or freshly isolated CD34(+) cells from umbilical cord blood were injected intramyocardially in infarcted nude rats. Cardiac function was analyzed by echocardiography. Ventricular remodelling was evaluated by tissue histology and electron microscopy, and neo-formed vessels were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Chronic local inflammatory infiltrates were evaluated in LV wall by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis of infarcted tissue was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay.
RESULTS: Both cell types induced an improvement in LV cardiac function and increased tissue cell proliferation in myocardial tissue and neoangiogenesis. However, MSC were more effective for the reduction of infarct size and prevention of ventricular remodelling. Scar tissue was 17.48 +/- 1.29% in the CD34 group and 10.36 +/- 1.07% in the MSC group (p < 0.001 in MSC vs. CD34). Moreover, unlike MSC, CD34(+)-treated animals showed local inflammatory infiltrates in LV wall that persisted 4 weeks after transplantation.
CONCLUSIONS: Mesenchymal stem cells might be more effective than CD34(+) cells for the healing of the infarct. This study contributes to elucidate the mechanisms by which these cell types operate in the course of MI treatment.
Hu CH, Li ZM, Du ZM, Zhang AX, Rana JS, Liu DH, Yang DY, Wu GF.
ABSTRACT: 1. Cell transplantation has promise as a therapeutic option for restoring impaired heart function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the optimal cell type to use remains controversial. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy and feasibility of intramyocardial transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (hUCB-EPC) in rats with AMI. 2. The Wistar rats myocardial infarction model was established by ligating the left anterior descending artery. The labelled hUCB-EPC were transplanted through intramyocardial injection. Left ventricular function was assessed using a pressure-volume catheter and echocardiogram. Anti-VIII immunohistochemistry staining was used to reflect the degree of angiogenesis in peri-infarcted areas by calculating the average capillary density. The fibrosis degree of infarcted myocardium was analysed by Masson staining and the collagen volume fraction was calculated. 3. The labelled donor endothelial progenitor cells were detected in the new microvessels in host myocardium by double-positive staining with CM-Dil and FITC-UEA-l. An increase in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular end-systolic pressure, first derivative of left ventricular pressure (+dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmax), as well as a decrease in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in rats with cell therapy indicated a significant improvement in global heart function. The cell therapy group had increased microvessel formation and a decreased degree of myocardial fibrosis compared to the control group. Moreover, the degree of myocardial fibrosis was less than that of the control group. 4. The improved global heart function and decreased cardiac fibrosis in rats with AMI implies the potential benefit of hUCB-EPC transplantation.
Senegaglia AC, Barboza LA, Dallagiovanna B, Aita CA, Hansen P, Rebelatto CL, Aguiar AM, Miyague NI, Shigunov P, Barchiki F, Correa A, Olandoski M, Krieger MA, Brofman PR.
ABSTRACT: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which express the CD133 marker, can differentiate into mature endothelial cells (ECs) and create new blood vessels. Normal angiogenesis is unable to repair the injured tissues that result from myocardial infarction (MI). Patients who have high cardiovascular risks have fewer EPCs and their EPCs exhibit greater in vitro senescence. Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB)-derived EPCs could be an alternative to rescue impaired stem cell function in the sick and elderly. The aim of this study was to purify HUCB-derived CD133(+) cells, expand them in vitro and evaluate the efficacy of the purified and expanded cells in treating MI in rats. CD133(+) cells were selected for using CD133-coupled magnetic microbeads. Purified cells stained positive for EPC markers. The cells were expanded and differentiated in media supplemented with fetal calf serum and basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Differentiation was confirmed by lack of staining for EPC markers. These expanded cells exhibited increased expression of mature EC markers and formed tubule-like structures in vitro. Only the expanded cells expressed VEGF mRNA. Cells were expanded up to 70-fold during 60 days of culture, and they retained their functional activity. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of purified and expanded CD133(+) cells in treating MI by intramyocardially injecting them into a rat model of MI. Rats were divided into three groups: A (purified CD133(+) cells-injected); B (expanded CD133(+) cells-injected) and C (saline buffer-injected). We observed a significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction for groups A and B. In summary, CD133(+) cells can be purified from HUCB, expanded in vitro without loosing their biological activity, and both purified and expanded cells show promising results for use in cellular cardiomyoplasty. However, further pre-clinical testing should be performed to determine whether expanded CD133(+) cells have any clinical advantages over purified CD133(+) cells.
Hu CH, Li ZM, DU ZM, Zhang AX, Yang DY, Wu GF.
BACKGROUND: Cell-based vascular therapies of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mediated neovascularization is still a novel but promising approach for the treatment of ischemic disease. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potentials of human umbilical cord blood-derived EPCs (hUCB-EPCs) in rat with acute myocardial infarction.
METHODS: Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) mononuclear cells were isolated using density gradient centrifugation from the fresh human umbilical cord in healthy delivery woman, and cultured in M199 medium for 7 days. The EPCs were identified by double-positive staining with 1, 1′-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3′, 3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine percholorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (Dil-Ac-LDL) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Ulex europaeus lectin (FITC-UEA-l). The rat acute myocardial infarction model was established by the ligation of the left anterior descending artery. The hUCB-EPCs were intramyocardially injected into the peri-infarct area. Four weeks later, left ventricular function was assessed by a pressure-volume catheter. The average capillary density (CAD) was evaluated by anti-VIII immunohistochemistry staining to reflect the development of neovascularization at the peri-infarct area. The graft cells were identified by double immunofluorescence staining with human nuclear antigen (HNA) and CD31 antibody, representing human origin of EPCs and vascular endothelium, respectively. Expressions of cytokines, proliferating cell nuclear angigen (PCNA), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected to investigate the underlying mechanisms of cell differentiation and revascularization.
RESULTS: The donor EPCs were detectable and integrated into the host myocardium as confirmed by double-positive immunofluorescence staining with HNA and CD31. And the anti-VIII staining demonstrated a higher degree of microvessel formation in EPCs transplanted rats, associated with a significant improvement of global heart function in terms of the increase of left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP), +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax as well as the decrease of LVEDP in rats with EPCs therapy comparing to the control rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of the rat PCNA mRNA and PECAM were both enhanced in the EPCs group compared with that of the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: The human umbilical cord blood-derived EPCs could incorporate into new-born capillaries in rat myocardium, induce revascularization and improve the proliferation activity in the peri-infarct area, resulting in the improvement of global heart function. This may indicate a promising stem cell resource in cell-based therapy for ischaemic diseases.
Xing YL, Shen LH, Li HW, Zhang YC, Zhao L, Zhao SM, Xu Q.
BACKGROUND: Cell therapy for cardiac regeneration is still under investigation. To date there have been a limited number of studies describing the optimal time for cell injection. The present study aimed to examine the optimal time for human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) transplantation after myocardial infarction (MI).
METHODS: The animals underwent MI by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and received an intravenous injection of equal volumes of HUCBCs or phosphate buffered saline at days 1, 5, 10 and 30 after MI. HUCBCs were detected by immunostaining against human human leucocyte antigen (HLA). Cardiac function, histological analysis and measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were performed 4 weeks after cell transplantation.
RESULTS: HUCBCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in rats that received transplantation at 5 and 10 days after MI. The best benefit was achieved in rats that received cells at 10-day after MI. Survival of engrafted HUCBCs, angiogenesis and VEGF expression were more obvious in the 10-day transplantation group than in the other transplantation groups. No evidence of cardiomyocyte regeneration was detected in any transplanted rats.
CONCLUSIONS: HUCBCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in rats that received HUCBCs at days 5 and 10 after MI with the optimal time for transplantation being 10 days post MI. Angiogenesis, but not cardiomyocyte regeneration, played a key role in the cardiac function improvement.
Sondergaard CS, Hess DA, Maxwell DJ, Weinheimer C, Rosová I, Creer MH, Piwnica-Worms D, Kovacs A, Pedersen L, Nolta JA.
ABSTRACT: Human stem cells from adult sources have been shown to contribute to the regeneration of muscle, liver, heart, and vasculature. The mechanisms by which this is accomplished are, however, still not well understood. We tested the engraftment and regenerative potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived ALDH(hi)Lin(-), and ALDH(lo)Lin(-) cells following transplantation to NOD/SCID or NOD/SCID beta2m null mice with experimentally induced acute myocardial infarction. We used combined nanoparticle labeling and whole organ fluorescent imaging to detect human cells in multiple organs 48 hours post transplantation. Engraftment and regenerative effects of cell treatment were assessed four weeks post transplantation. We found that ALDH(hi)Lin(-) stem cells specifically located to the site of injury 48 hours post transplantation and engrafted the infarcted heart at higher frequencies than ALDH(lo)Lin(-) committed progenitor cells four weeks post transplantation. We found no donor derived cardiomyocytes and few endothelial cells of donor origin. Cell treatment was not associated with any detectable functional improvement at the four week endpoint. There was, however, a significant increase in vascular density in the central infarct zone of ALDH(hi)Lin(-) cell-treated mice, as compared to PBS and ALDH(lo)Lin(-) cell-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that adult human stem cells do not become a significant part of the regenerating tissue, but rapidly home to and persist only temporarily at the site of hypoxic injury to exert trophic effects on tissue repair thereby enhancing vascular recovery.
ABSTRACT: Cell-based myocardial regenerative therapy is undergoing experimental and clinical trials in order to limit the consequences of decreased contractile function and compliance of damaged ventricles owing to ischemic and nonischemic myocardial diseases. A variety of myogenic and angiogenic cell types have been proposed, such as skeletal myoblasts, mononuclear and mesenchymal bone marrow cells, circulating blood-derived progenitors, adipose-derived stromal cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord cells, endometrial mesenchymal stem cells, adult testis pluripotent stem cells and embryonic cells. Current indications for stem cell therapy concern patients who have had a left- or right-ventricular infarction or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies. Other indications and potential applications include patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy, Chagas heart disease (American trypanosomiasis), ischemic mitral regurgitation, left ventricular noncompacted myocardium and pediatric cardiomyopathy. Suitable sources of cells for cardiac implant will depend on the types of diseases to be treated. For acute myocardial infarction, a cell that reduces myocardial necrosis and augments vascular blood flow will be desirable. For heart failure, cells that replace or promote myogenesis, reverse apoptopic mechanisms and reactivate dormant cell processes will be useful. It is important to note that stem cells are not an alternative to heart transplantation; selected patients should be in an early stage of heart failure as the goal of this regenerative approach is to avoid or delay organ transplantation. Since the cell niche provides crucial support needed for stem cell maintenance, the most interesting and realistic perspectives include the association of intramyocardial cell transplantation with tissue-engineered scaffolds and multisite cardiac pacing in order to transform a passive regenerative approach into a ‘dynamic cellular support’, a promising method for the creation of ‘bioartificial myocardium’.
Wojakowski W, Tendera M, Kucia M, Zuba-Surma E, Paczkowska E, Ciosek J, Hałasa M, Król M, Kazmierski M, Buszman P, Ochała A, Ratajczak J, Machaliński B, Ratajczak MZ.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess of the mobilization of nonhematopoietic very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in acute myocardial infarction (MI).
BACKGROUND: Acute MI induces mobilization of bone marrow stem cells. Recently, a rare population of VSELs, expressing markers of embryonic pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), was identified in adult murine bone marrow and human umbilical cord blood.
METHODS: Thirty-one patients with acute MI and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled. Blood was sampled on admission, after 24 h, and 5 days later. Erythrocytes were lysed and lin(-)CD45(-) VSELs were isolated using a live cell sorting system (FACSAria, Beckton Dickinson, San Jose, California).
RESULTS: In healthy subjects the median number of circulating VSELs was very low (median 0.8 [range 0 to 1.3]) cells/microl. In acute MI, VSELs were mobilized early (median 2.7 [range 0.2 to 3.9] cells/microl; p < 0.001) and remained elevated after 24 h and 5 days (median 4.7 [range 0.2 to 6.4] cells/microl; p < 0.003, and median 2.6 [range 0.3 to 3.6] cells/microl; p < 0.03, respectively). The mobilization of VSEL was significantly reduced in patients older than 50 years and with diabetes in comparison with younger and nondiabetic patients. Circulating VSELs were small (7 to 8 microm) and enriched in the messenger ribonucleic acid of PSC markers (Oct-4, Nanog), cardiac lineage (GATA-4, Nkx2.5/Csx, MEF2C), and endothelial (VE-cadherin) markers. The presence of PSC markers (Oct-4, SSEA-4) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in circulating VSELs was confirmed at the protein level by immunofluorescent staining and ImageStream system (Amnis Corporation, Seattle, Washington) analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Acute MI induced mobilization of VSELs expressing pluripotent markers, early cardiac and endothelial markers, and chemokine receptor CXCR4.
Henning RJ, Shariff M, Eadula U, Alvarado F, Vasko M, Sanberg PR, Sanberg CD, Delostia V.
ABSTRACT: We investigated whether human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells, can limit myocardial cytokine expression and inflammatory cell infiltration in acute myocardial infarction. We permanently ligated the left coronary artery of rats and injected into the myocardium either Isolyte or 4 x 10(6) HUCBC in Isolyte and measured myocardial cytokines with antibody arrays at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours after infarction. We then measured with flow cytometry myocardial macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes at 12, 24, and 72 hours after infarctions in rats treated with either intramyocardial Isolyte or 4 x 10(6) HUCBC. In the Isolyte-treated hearts, between 2 and 12 hours after myocardial infarction, tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased from 6.7 +/- 0.9% to 52.3 +/- 4.7%, monocyte chemoattract protein increased from 9.5 +/- 1.2% to 39.8 +/- 2.1%, fractalkine increased from 11 +/- 1.5% to 28.1 +/- 1.3%, ciliary neurotrophic factor increased from 12.1 +/- 0.02% to 25.9 +/- 1.1%, macrophage inflammatory protein increased from 10.3 +/- 1.5% to 23.9.0 +/- 1.4%, interferon-gamma increased from 8.7 +/- 0.4% to 26.0 +/- 1.6%, interleukin-1beta increased from 6.1 +/- 0.04% to 19.0 +/- 1.2%, and IL-4 increased from 5.9 +/- 0.03% to 15 +/- 1.5% (all p < 0.001 compared with controls). The concentrations of fractalkine remained significantly increased at 72 hours after acute infarction. In contrast, the myocardial concentrations of these cytokines did not significantly change in HUCBC treated hearts at 2, 6, 12, 24, or 72 hours after infarction. The percentage of neutrophils increased from 0.04 +/- 0.2%/50,000 heart cells in the controls to 5.3 +/- 1.2%/50,000 heart cells 12 hours after infarction in Isolyte-treated hearts but averaged only 1.3 +/- 0.7%/50,000 heart cells in HUCBC treated hearts (p < 0.02). Thereafter, the percentages of neutrophils rapidly decreased at 24 and at 72 hours after infarction and averaged 0.6 +/- 0.2%/50,000 heart cells at 72 hours after infarction in Isolyte-treated hearts in contrast to 0.2 +/- 0.1%/50,000 cells in HUCBC hearts (p < 0.05). Moreover, the percentages of neutrophils at 24 and 72 hours in HUCBC hearts were not significantly different from controls. At 24 hours post infarction, the percentage of CD3 and CD4 lymphocytes were 10.7 +/- 1.4% and 6.3 +/- 1.1%/50,000 cells in Isolyte hearts in comparison with only 4.9 +/- 0.8% and 2.9 +/- 0.5% in HUCBC hearts (p < 0.005 for Isolyte versus HUCBC). The percentage of CD11b macrophages was 2.8 +/- 0.3% in Isolyte hearts and 1.9 +/- 0.2% in HUCBC treated hearts (p < 0.05). At 72 hours after infarction, the percentage of CD3 and CD4 lymphocytes averaged 8.0 +/- 1.1% and 5.1 +/- 0.8%/50,000 heart cells in Isolyte hearts in comparison with only 4.1 +/- 0.5% and 2.3 +/- 0.4%/50,000 heart cells in the HUCBC treated infarctions (p < 0.005). Left ventricular infarct sizes in Isolyte-treated hearts at 72 hours post infarction averaged 15.7 +/- 1.4% of the left ventricular muscle area in contrast to HUCBC treated infarctions that averaged 6.9 +/- 1.4% of the left ventricular muscle area (p < 0.02). Moreover in rats followed for 2 months post infarction, the LV ejection fractions decreased to 65.4 +/- 1.9% and 69.1 +/- 1.9% at 1 and 2 months after infarction in Isolyte-treated hearts and were significantly different from HUCBC treated hearts that averaged 72.1 +/- 1.3% and 75.7 +/- 1.4% (both p < 0.02). The present experiments suggest that an important mechanism whereby HUCBC limit infarct size and improve left ventricular ejection fraction is by significantly limiting inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cells in infarcted myocardium.
Henning RJ, Burgos JD, Vasko M, Alvarado F, Sanberg CD, Sanberg PR, Morgan MB.
ABSTRACT: There is no consensus regarding the optimal dose of stem cells or the optimal route of administration for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Bone marrow cells, containing hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, in doses of 0.5 x 10(6) to >30 x 10(6) have been directly injected into the myocardium or into coronary arteries or infused intravenously in subjects with myocardial infarctions to reduce infarct size and improve heart function. Therefore, we determined the specific effects of different doses of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, on infarct size. In order to determine the optimal technique for stem cell administration, HUCBC were injected directly into the myocardium (IM), or into the LV cavity with the ascending aorta transiently clamped to facilitate coronary artery perfusion (IA), or injected intravenously (IV) in rats 1-2 h after the left anterior coronary artery was permanently ligated. Immune suppressive therapy was not given to any rat. One month later, the infarct size in control rat hearts treated with only Isolyte averaged 23.7 +/- 1.7% of the LV muscle area. Intramyocardial injection of HUCBC reduced the infarct size by 71% with 0.5 x 10(6) HUCBC and by 93% with 4 x 10(6) HUCBC in comparison with the controls (p < 0.001). Intracoronary injection reduced the infarction size by 47% with 0.5 x 10(6) HUCBC and by 80% with 4 x 10(6) HUCBC (p < 0.001), and IV HUCBC reduced infarct size by 51% with 0.5 x 10(6) and by 75-77% with 16-32 million HUCBC (p < 0.001) in comparison with control hearts. With 4 x 10(6) HUCBC, infarction size was 65% smaller with IM HUCBC than with IA HUCBC and 78% smaller than with IV HUCBC (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, IM, IA, and IV HUCBC all produced significant reductions in infarct size in comparison with Isolyte-treated infarcted hearts without requirements for host immune suppression. The present experiments demonstrate that the optimal dose of HUCBC for reduction of infarct size in the rat is 4 x 10(6) IM, 4 x 10(6) IA, and 16 x 10(6) IV, and that the IM injection of HUCBC is the most effective technique for reduction in infarct size.
Henning RJ, Burgos JD, Ondrovic L, Sanberg P, Balis J, Morgan MB.
ABSTRACT: We are investigating the effects of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear progenitor cells (HUCBC) for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction because human cord blood is a readily available and an abundant source of primitive cells that may be beneficial in myocardial repair. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on precisely when to inject stem/progenitor cells for the optimal treatment of acute myocardial infarction. We used an in vitro assay to determine the attraction of infarcted rat myocardium at 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion from 45 rats for HUCBC in order to determine the optimal time to transplant HUCBC after myocardial infarction. Our assay is based on the migration of fluorescent DAPI-labeled HUCBC from wells in an upper chamber of a modified Boyden apparatus through a semiporous polycarbonate membrane into wells in a lower chamber that contain either normal or infarcted myocardium. DAPI-labeled HUCBC (100,000) were placed in each of the separate wells above the membrane that corresponded to normal or infarct homogenate in the lower wells. The greatest HUCBC migration to infarcted myocardium occurred at 2 h and 24 h after LAD occlusion in comparison with normal controls. A total of 76,331 +/- 3384 HUCBC migrated to infarcted myocardium at 2 h and 69,911 +/- 2732 at 24 h after LAD occlusion (both p < 0.001) and significantly exceeded HUCBC migration to normal heart homogenate. The HUCBC migration remained greatest at 2 and 24 h after LAD occlusion when the number of migrated cells was adjusted for the size of each myocardial infarction. Injection of 106 HUCBC in saline into infarcted myocardium of non immunosuppressed rats within 2 h (n=10) or at 24 h (n=5) after LAD occlusion resulted in infarction sizes 1 month later of 6.4 +/- 0.01% and 8.4 +/- 0.02% of the total left ventricular muscle area, respectively, in comparison with infarction sizes of 24.5 +/- 0.02% (n=10) in infarcted rat hearts treated with only saline (p < 0.005). Acute myocardial infarction in rats treated with only saline increased the myocardial concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from 6.9 +/- 0.8% to 51.3 +/- 4.6%, monocyte/macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) from 10.5 +/- 1.1% to 39.2 +/- 2.0%, monocyte inflammatory protein (MIP) from 10.6 +/- 1.6% to 23.1 +/- 1.5%, and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) from 8.9 +/- 0.3% to 25.0 +/- 1.7% between 2 and 12 h after coronary occlusion in comparison with known controls (all p < 0.001). In contrast, the myocardial concentrations of these cytokines in rat hearts treated with HUCBC did not significantly change from the controls at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after coronary occlusion. The present investigations suggest that infarcted myocardium significantly attracts HUCBC, that HUCBC can substantially reduce myocardial infarction size, and that HUCBC can limit the expression of TNF-alpha, MCP-1, MIP, and INF-gamma in acutely infarcted myocardium.