Neil Riordan Article Count: 55 – Updated May 11, 2011
- Increased Level of Circulating Endothelial Microparticles and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. J Clinic Experiment Cardiol. 2011 April 5;2:131.
- Intravenous ascorbic acid to prevent and treat cancer-associated sepsis? J Transl Med. 2011 Mar 4;9(1):25.
- On the missing link between inflammation and cancer. Dermatol Online J. 2011 Jan 15;17(1):10.
- Cutaneous sarcoidosis and malignancy: An association between sarcoidosis with skin manifestations and systemic neoplasia. Dermatol Online J. 2011 Jan 15;17(1):2.
- Outstanding survival and regeneration process by the use of intelligent acellular dermal matrices and mesenchymal stem cells in a burn pig model. Transplant Proc. 2010 Dec;42(10):4275-8.
- Prevention of hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis by gene silencing of Toll-like receptor-4. J Transl Med. 2010 Dec 15;8:133.
- Feasibility of combination allogeneic stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury: a case report. Int Arch Med. 2010 Nov 11;3:30.
- Vitamin D concentrations, endothelial progenitor cells, and cardiovascular risk factors. Panminerva Med. 2010 Jun;52(2 Suppl 1):81-7.
- Circulating endothelial progenitor cells and erectile dysfunction: possibility of nutritional intervention? Panminerva Med. 2010 Jun;52(2 Suppl 1):75-80.
- Safety evaluation of allogeneic umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell therapy for degenerative conditions. J Transl Med. 2010 Aug 3;8:75.
- Immunotherapy for melanoma: current status and perspectives. J Immunother. 2010 Jul-Aug;33(6):570-90.
- Autologous stromal vascular fraction cells: a tool for facilitating tolerance in rheumatic disease. Cell Immunol. 2010;264(1):7-17. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
- Tumor vaccines in 2010: need for integration. Cell Immunol. 2010;263(2):138-47. Epub 2010 Apr 3.
- Combination stem cell therapy for heart failure. Int Arch Med. 2010 Apr 14;3(1):5.
- Nutraceutical augmentation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells in human subjects. J Transl Med. 2010 Apr 8;8:34.
- The lysosomotropic agent, hydroxychloroquine, delivered in a biodegradable nanoparticle system, overcomes drug resistance of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2010 Feb;25(1):97-103.
- The next generation of burns treatment: intelligent films and matrix, controlled enzymatic debridement, and adult stem cells. Transplant Proc. 2010 Jan-Feb;42(1):345-9.
- Ascorbate inhibition of angiogenesis in aortic rings ex vivo and subcutaneous Matrigel plugs in vivo. J Angiogenes Res. 2010 Jan 18;2:2.
- Circulating endothelial progenitor cells: a new approach to anti-aging medicine? J Transl Med. 2009 Dec 15;7:106.
- Mesenchymal stem cells as anti-inflammatories: implications for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Cell Immunol. 2010;260(2):75-82.
- Non-expanded adipose stromal vascular fraction cell therapy for multiple sclerosis. J Transl Med. 2009 Apr 24;7:29.
- Feasibility investigation of allogeneic endometrial regenerative cells. J Transl Med. 2009 Feb 20;7:15.
- Inhibition of intracranial glioma growth by endometrial regenerative cells. Cell Cycle. 2009 Feb 15;8(4):606-10. Epub 2009 Mar 2.
- Anti-angiogenic effect of high doses of ascorbic acid. J Transl Med. 2008 Sep 12;6:50.
- Allogeneic endometrial regenerative cells: an “Off the shelf solution” for critical limb ischemia? J Transl Med. 2008 Aug 19;6:45.
- Granulocyte activity in patients with cancer and healthy subjects. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008 Sep;7(9):1362-7. Epub 2008 Sep 2.
- Exosomes as a tumor immune escape mechanism: possible therapeutic implications. J Transl Med. 2008 Jul 22;6:37.
- Immune effects of mesenchymal stem cells: implications for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Cell Immunol. 2008 May-Jun;253(1-2):11-5. Epub 2008 Jul 15.
- Placental mesenchymal and cord blood stem cell therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008 Jun;16(6):898-905.
- Pharmacokinetics of vitamin C: insights into the oral and intravenous administration of ascorbate. P R Health Sci J. 2008 Mar;27(1):7-19.
- Antigen-specific therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2008 Feb;8(2):191-9.
- Endometrial regenerative cells: a novel stem cell population. J Transl Med. 2007 Nov 15;5:57.
- Stem cell therapy for autism. J Transl Med. 2007 Jun 27;5:30.
- Vitamin C pharmacokinetics after continuous infusion in a patient with prostate cancer. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Jun;41(6):1082-3. Epub 2007 May 22.
- Cord blood in regenerative medicine: do we need immune suppression? J Transl Med. 2007 Jan 30;5:8.
- Therapeutic use of Aldara in chronic myeloid leukemia. J Transl Med. 2007 Jan 25;5:4.
- Tumor growth parameters of in-vivo human breast carcinoma: a proposed mathematical model for tumor growth kinetics. P R Health Sci J. 2006 Mar;25(1):71-3.
- Induction of antitumor immunity through xenoplacental immunization. J Transl Med. 2006 May 25;4:22.
- A pilot clinical study of continuous intravenous ascorbate in terminal cancer patients. P R Health Sci J. 2005 Dec;24(4):269-76.
- A novel method of modifying immune responses by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures. J Transl Med. 2006 Jan 3;4:2.
- Cancer is a functional repair tissue. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(3):486-90. Epub 2005 Nov 15.
- Orthomolecular oncology review: ascorbic acid and cancer 25 years later. Integr Cancer Ther. 2005 Mar;4(1):32-44.
- Intravenous vitamin C as a chemotherapy agent: a report on clinical cases. P R Health Sci J. 2004 Jun;23(2):115-8.
- Cell membrane fatty acid composition differs between normal and malignant cell lines. P R Health Sci J. 2004 Jun;23(2):103-6.
- L-ascorbic acid represses constitutive activation of NF-kappaB and COX-2 expression in human acute myeloid leukemia, HL-60. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Oct 1;93(2):257-70.
- Intravenous ascorbic acid: protocol for its application and use. P R Health Sci J. 2003 Sep;22(3):287-90.
- Prevention of venous thrombosis in long-haul flights with Flite Tabs: the LONFLITE-FLITE randomized, controlled trial. Angiology. 2003 Sep-Oct;54(5):531-9.
- Effects of a high molecular mass Convolvulus arvensis extract on tumor growth and angiogenesis. P R Health Sci J. 2002 Dec;21(4):323-8.
- Orthomolecular oncology: a mechanistic view of intravenous ascorbate’s chemotherapeutic activity. P R Health Sci J. 2002 Mar;21(1):39-41.
- Inhibition of human breast carcinoma cell proliferation by ascorbate and copper. P R Health Sci J. 2002 Mar;21(1):21-3.
- Cytotoxicity of ascorbate, lipoic acid, and other antioxidants in hollow fibre in vitro tumours. Br J Cancer. 2001 Jun 1;84(11):1544-50.
- Integrative medicine: a paradigm shift in medical education and practice. P R Health Sci J. 2000 Dec;19(4):389-92.
- The paradoxical role of lipid peroxidation on carcinogenesis and tumor growth: a commentary. Med Hypotheses. 1996 Jun;46(6):503-4.
- Intravenous ascorbate as a tumor cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent. Med Hypotheses. 1995 Mar;44(3):207-13.
- Improved microplate fluorometer counting of viable tumor and normal cells. Anticancer Res. 1994 May-Jun;14(3A):927-31.
Mirikova N, Casciari J, Hunninghake R, Riordan N.
ABSTRACT: Formation of micro particles is part of normal cellular function. The number of microparticles increases in conditions that cause cell stress and is the marker of exposure of endothelial cells to unfavorable plasma molecules. In our study, we analyzed contribution of different risk factors (lipoproteins, triglycerides, cholesterol, and high glucose) in development of the increased level of endothelial microparticles.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We included thirty-five participants who did not have the history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic inflammatory disease or cancer.
Lipid profile, glucose, C-reactive protein, circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and platelet microparticles (PMPs) were measured for all subjects.
Microparticles in plasma samples of participants were phenotypes and quantified by flow cytometry. Measurements of the lipid profile, C-reactive protein and glucose were performed by established clinical laboratory tests.
The levels of circulating EMPs were compared to a variety of cardiovascular risk factors. As the result of our analysis, we found that the number of endothelial microparticles was elevated for subjects with increased level of cardiovascular risk factors such as cholesterol to HDL ratio, LDL to HDL ratio and the level of C-reactive protein.
Elevated number of endothelial microparticles was measured in subjects with increased level of glucose. In addition, the level of platelet microparticles was affected by the increased triglyceride and cholesterol content in plasma.
CONCLUSION: As the result of our analysis, we demonstrated that apoptotic microparticles were elevated at conditions of elevated risk factors. The increased level of EMPs in circulation might be an early indicator of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk.
Ichim TE, Minev B, Braciak T, Luna B, Hunninghake R, Mikirova NA, Jackson JA, Gonzalez MJ, Miranda Massari JR, Alexandrescu DT, Dasanu C, Bogin V, Ancans J, Stevens RB, Markosian B, Koropatnick J, Chen CS, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: The history of ascorbic acid (AA) and cancer has been marked with controversy. Clinical studies evaluating AA in cancer outcome continue to the present day. However, the wealth of data suggesting that AA may be highly beneficial in addressing cancer-associated inflammation, particularly progression to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multi organ failure (MOF), has been largely overlooked. Patients with advanced cancer are generally deficient in AA. Once these patients develop septic symptoms, a further decrease in ascorbic acid levels occurs. Given the known role of ascorbate in: a) maintaining endothelial and suppression of inflammatory markers; b) protection from sepsis in animal models; and c) direct antineoplastic effects, we propose the use of ascorbate as an adjuvant to existing modalities in the treatment and prevention of cancer-associated sepsis.
Alexandrescu DT, Riordan NH, Ichim TE, Kauffman CL, Kabigting F, Dutton CT, Dasanu CA.
ABSTRACT: A various array of cutaneous granulomatous disorders have been found to be associated with internal malignancy. Among them, sarcoidosis, granuloma anulare (GA), psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), or other neutrophilic dermatoses such as the Sweet syndrome and subcorneal pustular dermatosis may precede the development of a neoplastic process by months or years. Pathogenic links of inflammation with cancer are discussed, including inflammation, intrinsic immune dysfunction, cytokines and interleukins, angiogenetic factors, and epigenetic changes.
Alexandrescu DT, Kauffman CL, Ichim TE, Riordan NH, Kabigting F, Dasanu CA.
BACKGROUND: Whereas the association between multisystem and pulmonary sarcoidosis and malignancy has been documented, a relationship between cutaneous sarcoidosis and neoplasia has not yet been reported. Because cutaneous manifestations are seen in 20-25 percent of cases of sarcoidosis, this association deserves further investigation.
METHODS: We reviewed the relevant literature, in addition to our case series, for a total of 110 cases of cutaneous and non-cutaneous sarcoidosis associated with malignancy with the aim of analyzing possible associations between cutaneous sarcoidosis and malignancy and to enhance the dermatologist’s understanding of their critical role in the management of this disease. A search for consecutive cases, which were encountered during the past 20 years, identified 10 cases of confirmed cutaneous sarcoidosis. A review of the relevant literature was also conducted to identify cases of malignancy associated with cutaneous and non-cutaneous sarcoidosis.
RESULTS: Cutaneous localization of sarcoidosis was identified in 58 of 100 patients with sarcoidosis and cancer found in the literature (58%) and in 4 of 10 patients in our series (40%). In our series, all cases manifested solid tumors, including breast (n=4 tumors), prostate cancer, colon cancer, kidney cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (n=1 of each type). Among the 6 patients in our series with cancers and non-cutaneous sarcoidosis, the types of neoplasias encountered were renal cancer (n=1), mycosis fungoides (n=1), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=1), colon cancer (n=1), and ADK of parotid (n=2). Neoplasias developed after an average of 7.14 years in the literature cases and eight years in our series, following the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Among the 100 cases of cutaneous (n=58) and non-cutaneous (n=42) sarcoidosis associates with malignancy, which were extracted from the literature, hematologic malignancies accounted for 73 percent of cases and sarcoidosis preceded the detection of neoplasia in a majority (76%) of cases. Among 110 total cases analyzed in this paper, cutaneous sarcoidosis was confirmed in 56.4 percent of overall cases, a figure exceeding expected rates of cutaneous involvement (20-25%) in the general sarcoidosis population.
CONCLUSIONS: Sarcoidosis with cutaneous manifestations appears to be associated with malignancy, possibly at a higher rate than other systemic forms of sarcoidosis. The predominant occurrence of sarcoidosis before the development of neoplasia may indicate that an immune dysregulation, such as impairment of cellular immunity mediated by sarcoidosis or the effects of treatment may contribute to an increased risk of malignancy in predisposed individuals. Physician recognition of this link between sarcoidosis and malignancy is critical. Dermatologists, in particular, play an important role, given that many of these associated cases manifest initially, or even solely, with cutaneous findings.
Mansilla E, Spretz R, Larsen G, Nuñez L, Drago H, Sturla F, Marin GH, Roque G, Martire K, Díaz Aquino V, Bossi S, Gardiner C, Lamonega R, Lauzada N, Cordone J, Raimondi JC, Tau JM, Biasi NR, Marini JE, Patel AN, Ichim TE, Riordan N, Maceira A.
ABSTRACT: A pig model with a deep large burn was used to study the regeneration process induced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and acellular pig dermal matrices, made intelligent by the combination with biodegradable nanofibers loaded with growth factors (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and epidermal growth factor) and coated with the anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody (intelligent acellular dermal matrices, IADMs). These IADMs are specially designed to integrate in the wound bed as new biological scaffolds as well as to specifically recruit and attach circulating and/or externally applied MSCs through the anti-CD44 antibody while delivering precise amounts of growth factors. In this way, the reparative process as well as the aesthetic and functional results were enhanced in our burn model. The animal survived, the wound was completely closed, and total regeneration of the skin was obtained without much scarring. Surprisingly, hair follicles and other skin appendages developed despite the severity and deepness of the burn. Even burned muscles and ribs seemed to have undergone a regenerative process by the end of the study. Based on these findings, we have proposed the use of IADMs and autologous, allogeneic or xenogeneic MSCs, as a new paradigm for the future treatment of large burns and probably other dermatological and cosmetic human conditions.
Zhang Y, Peng T, Zhu H, Zheng X, Zhang X, Jiang N, Cheng X, Lai X, Shunnar A, Singh M, Riordan N, Bogin V, Tong N, Min WP.
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is an early event involved in cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling triggers cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic mice.
METHODS: Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 mice by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were treated with 50 μg of TLR4 siRNA or scrambled siRNA as control. Myocardial apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay.
RESULTS: After 7 days of hyperglycemia, the level of TLR4 mRNA in myocardial tissue was significantly elevated. Treatment of TLR4 siRNA knocked down gene expression as well as diminished its elevation in diabetic mice. Apoptosis was evident in cardiac tissues of diabetic mice as detected by a TUNEL assay. In contrast, treatment with TLR4 siRNA minimized apoptosis in myocardial tissues. Mechanistically, caspase-3 activation was significantly inhibited in mice that were treated with TLR4 siRNA, but not in mice treated with control siRNA. Additionally, gene silencing of TLR4 resulted in suppression of apoptotic
cascades, such as Fas and caspase-3 gene expression. TLR4 deficiency resulted in inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting suppression of hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis by TLR4 is associated with attenuation of oxidative stress to the cardiomyocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we present novel evidence that TLR4 plays a critical role in cardiac apoptosis. This is the first demonstration of the prevention of cardiac apoptosis in diabetic mice through silencing of the TLR4 gene.
Ichim TE, Solano F, Lara F, Paris E, Ugalde F, Rodriguez JP, Minev B, Bogin V, Ramos F, Woods EJ, Murphy MP, Patel AN, Harman RJ, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Cellular therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) is overviewed focusing on bone marrow mononuclear cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. A case is made for the possibility of combining cell types, as well as for allogeneic use. We report the case of 29 year old male who suffered a crush fracture of the L1 vertebral body, lacking lower sensorimotor function, being a score A on the ASIA scale. Stem cell therapy comprised of intrathecal administration of allogeneic umbilical cord blood ex-vivo expanded CD34 and umbilical cord matrix MSC was performed 5 months, 8 months, and 14 months after injury. Cell administration was well tolerated with no adverse effects observed. Neuropathic pain subsided from intermittent 10/10 to once a week 3/10 VAS. Recovery of muscle, bowel and sexual function was noted, along with a decrease in ASIA score to “D”. This case supports further investigation into allogeneic-based stem cell therapies for SCI.
Mikirova NA, Belcaro G, Jackson JA, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Our study aimed to establish the association of vitamin D status with the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) and to demonstrate the effect of vitamin D on the level of lipoproteins responsible for increased cardiovascular risk and high blood pressure. 41 healthy adults were selected. EPCs were defined as CD34+/KDR+ cells, and CACs were defined as cells that expressed endothelial markers after incubation of mononuclear blood cells with endothelial growth factors during 5 days. We found a positive association between EPCs, CACs and the level of vitamin D and an inverse correlation between several subclasses of lipoproteins. The level of vitamin D higher than 40 ng/ml demonstrated a positive effect on regulation of blood pressure, and there was significant difference in cholesterol/HDL ratio, very low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides for groups of subjects with varying levels of vitamin D.
Ichim TE, Zhong Z, Mikirova NA, Jackson JA, Hunninghake R, Mansilla E, Marín G, Núñez L, Patel AN, Angle N, Murphy MP, Dasanu CA, Alexandrescu DT, Bogin V, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: To provide an overview of molecular and cellular processes involved in erectile dysfunction (ED) with emphasis on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and discuss possible nutraceutical means of intervention. A review of literature on Pubmed related to EPC and ED was conducted. Patients with ED appear to possess a reduced number of circulating EPC, which is associated with poor endothelial function possibly as a result of underlying low-grade inflammation. Several studies support the possibility of improving erectile function by inhibition of inflammation as well as administration of various stem cell types. One particularly interesting approach is nutraceutical supplementation to increase circulating EPC, as demonstrated in the product Stem-Kine. Interventions aimed at increasing circulating EPC may have potential in treatment of vascular ED.
Yang WZ, Zhang Y, Wu F, Min WP, Minev B, Zhang M, Luo XL, Ramos F, Ichim TE, Riordan NH, Hu X.
BACKGROUND: The current paradigm for cord blood transplantation is that HLA matching and immune suppression are strictly required to prevent graft versus host disease (GVHD). Immunological arguments and historical examples have been made that the use of cord blood for non-hematopoietic activities such as growth factor production, stimulation of angiogenesis, and immune modulation may not require matching or immune suppression.
METHODS: 114 patients suffering from non-hematopoietic degenerative conditions were treated with non-matched, allogeneic cord blood. Doses of 1-3 x 10(7) cord blood mononuclear cells per treatment, with 4-5 treatments both intrathecal and intravenously were performed. Adverse events and hematological, immunological, and biochemical parameters were analyzed for safety evaluation.
RESULTS: No serious adverse effects were reported. Hematological, immunological, and biochemical parameters did not deviate from normal ranges as a result of therapy.
CONCLUSION: The current hematology-based paradigm of need for matching and immune suppression needs to be revisited when cord blood is used for non-hematopoietic regenerative purposes in immune competent recipients.
Alexandrescu DT, Ichim TE, Riordan NH, Marincola FM, Di Nardo A, Kabigting FD, Dasanu CA.
ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy is an important modality in the therapy of patients with malignant melanoma. As our knowledge about this disease continues to expand, so does the immunotherapeutic armamentarium. Nevertheless, successful preclinical models do not always translate into clinically meaningful results. The authors give a comprehensive analysis of most recent advances in the immune anti-melanoma therapy, including interleukins, interferons, other cytokines, adoptive immunotherapy, biochemotherapy, as well as the use of different vaccines. We also present the fundamental concepts behind various immune enhancement strategies, passive immunotherapy, as well as the use of immune adjuvants. This review brings into discussion the results of newer and older clinical trials, as well as potential limitations and drawbacks seen with the utilization of various immune therapies in malignant melanoma. Development of novel therapeutic approaches, along with optimization of existing therapies, continues to hold a great promise in the field of melanoma therapy research. Use of anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 antibodies, realization of the importance of co-stimulatory signals, which translated into the use of agonist CD40 monoclonal antibodies, as well as activation of innate immunity through enhanced expression of co-stimulatory molecules on the surface of dendritic cells by TLR agonists are only a few items on the list of recent advances in the treatment of melanoma. The need to engineer better immune interactions and to boost positive feedback loops appear crucial for the future of melanoma therapy, which ultimately resides in our understanding of the complexity of immune responses in this disease.
Ichim TE, Harman RJ, Min WP, Minev B, Solano F, Rodriguez JP, Alexandrescu DT, DeNecochea-Campion R, Hu X, Marleau AM, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Since the days of Medawar, the goal of therapeutic tolerogenesis has been a “Holy Grail” for immunologists. While knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process has been increasing at an exponential rate, clinical progress has been minimal. To provide a mechanistic background of tolerogenesis, we overview common processes in the naturally occurring examples of: pregnancy, cancer, oral tolerance and anterior chamber associated immune deviation. The case is made that an easily accessible byproduct of plastic surgery, the adipose stromal vascular fraction, contains elements directly capable of promoting tolerogenesis such as T regulatory cells and inhibitory macrophages. The high content of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells from this source provides the possibility of trophic/regenerative potential, which would augment tolerogenic processes by decreasing ongoing inflammation. We discuss the application of this autologous cell source in the context of rheumatoid arthritis, concluding with some practical examples of its applications.
Koos D, Josephs SF, Alexandrescu DT, Chan RC, Ramos F, Bogin V, Gammill V, Dasanu CA, De Necochea-Campion R, Riordan NH, Carrier E.
ABSTRACT: Induction of tumor-specific immunity is an attractive approach to cancer therapy, however to date every major pivotal trial has resulted in failure. While the phenomena of tumor-mediated immune suppression has been known for decades, only recently have specific molecular pathways been elucidated, and for the first time, rationale means of intervening and observing results of intervention have been developed. In this review we describe major advances in our understanding of tumor escape from immunological pressure and provide some possible therapeutic scenarios for enhancement of efficacy in future cancer vaccine trials.
Ichim TE, Solano F, Lara F, Rodriguez JP, Cristea O, Minev B, Ramos F, Woods EJ, Murphy MP, Alexandrescu DT, Patel AN, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that are not eligible for transplantation have limited therapeutic options. Stem cell therapy such as autologous bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, or purified cells thereof has been used clinically since 2001. To date over 1000 patients have received cellular therapy as part of randomized trials, with the general consensus being that a moderate but statistically significant benefit occurs. Therefore, one of the important next steps in the field is optimization. In this paper we discuss three ways to approach this issue: a) increasing stem cell migration to the heart; b) augmenting stem cell activity; and c) combining existing stem cell therapies to recapitulate a “therapeutic niche”. We conclude by describing a case report of a heart failure patient treated with a combination stem cell protocol in an attempt to augment beneficial aspects of cord blood CD34 cells and mesenchymal-like stem cells.
Mikirova NA, Jackson JA, Hunninghake R, Kenyon J, Chan KW, Swindlehurst CA, Minev B, Patel AN, Murphy MP, Smith L, Ramos F, Ichim TE, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: The medical significance of circulating endothelial or hematopoietic progenitors is becoming increasing recognized. While therapeutic augmentation of circulating progenitor cells using G-CSF has resulted in promising preclinical and early clinical data for several degenerative conditions, this approach is limited by cost and inability to perform chronic administration. Stem-Kine is a food supplement that was previously reported to augment circulating EPC in a pilot study. Here we report a trial in 18 healthy volunteers administered Stem-Kine twice daily for a 2 week period. Significant increases in circulating CD133 and CD34 cells were observed at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 subsequent to initiation of administration, which correlated with increased hematopoietic progenitors as detected by the HALO assay. Augmentation of EPC numbers in circulation was detected by KDR-1/CD34 staining and colony forming assays. These data suggest Stem-Kine supplementation may be useful as a stimulator of reparative processes associated with mobilization of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors.
Mansilla E, Marin GH, Nuñez L, Drago H, Sturla F, Mertz C, Rivera L, Ichim T, Riordan N, Raimondi C.
ABSTRACT: Nonviral delivery systems are relatively easy to produce in the large scale, are safe, and elicit a negligible immune response. Nanoparticles (NPs) offer promise as nonviral vectors as biocompatible and -degradable carriers of drugs with targeting to specific sites by surface receptors of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We investigated the effect of four PEG-PLGA (polyethylene glycol-polylactic-co-glycolic acid) NP systems on drug-resistant B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells in vitro, three of them encapsulating the drug, hydroxylchloroquine (HDQ), two with NP surface coatings of mAbs (NP1) CD20, (NP2) CD19, and CD20, and one (NP3) with no mAb, but tagged with the fluorescent marker, fluorescein isothiocyanate. The fourth NP system (NP4) was coated with anti-CD19/FITC and anti-CD20/Alexa-Fluor((R)) antibodies, but did not contain the active drug, HCQ. Our data indicate that PEG-PLGA nanoparticles with surface mAbs are suitable for selective drug delivery to B-CLL cells and produce a strong apoptotic effect when loaded with the lysosomotropic agent, HDQ.
Drago H, Marín GH, Sturla F, Roque G, Mártire K, Díaz Aquino V, Lamonega R, Gardiner C, Ichim T, Riordan N, Raimondi JC, Bossi S, Samadikuchaksaraei A, van Leeuwen M, Tau JM, Núñez L, Larsen G, Spretz R, Mansilla E.
ABSTRACT: We describe a novel technology based on nanoengineered multifunctional acellular biologic scaffolds combined with wound dressings and films of the same kind. This method allows selective delivery and release of shielded biomaterials and bioactive substances to a desired wound or damaged tissue while stimulating the selective anchoring and adhesion of endogenous circulating repairing cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, to obtain a faster and more physiologic healing process. We also present a new controlled enzymatic debridement process for more effective burned tissue scarolysis. In light of our preliminary in vitro and in vivo data, we are convinced that these approaches can include the use of other kinds of adult stem cells, such as endometrial regenerative cells, to improve the vascularization of the constructs, with great potential in the entire tissue and organ regeneration field but especially for the treatment of severely burned patients, changing the way these lesions may be treated in the future.
Mikirova NA, Casciari JJ, Riordan NH.
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is critical to tumor growth and is therefore a potential target for cancer therapy. As many current inhibitors of angiogenesis exhibit host toxicity, natural alternatives are needed. At millimolar concentrations, ascorbate (vitamin C) inhibits migration and tubule formation by mature endothelial cells and endothelial progenitors. In the present study, we examined the effects of ascorbate, at levels relevant during intravenous infusion therapy, on angiogenesis using an ex vivo an in vivo assay.
METHODS: Two assays were used to evaluate effect of high-doses ascorbic acid on angiogenesis: ex vivo rat aortic ring explant assay in Matrigel matrices and in vivo Matrigel plug assay. In aortic rings, we quantified microvessel growth, branching and vessel regression under different treatment conditions. In murine angiogenesis assay, male C57 mice 6-8 weeks old were treated by high-dose ascorbic acid and the number of microvessels was analyzed by histological method. To characterize the population of cells that formed capillary network and microvessels, the sections were stained by CD34 and CD31 antibodies.
RESULTS: Results show that sprouting of endothelial tubules from aortic rings was reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion by ascorbate: while controls roughly tripled sprout densities during the study, ascorbate (1 mg/mL, 5.5 mM) actually reduced sprout density. In vivo, the ability of mice to vascularize subcutaneously implanted Matrigel plug was diminished if the mice were treated with 430 mg/kg vitamin C: numbers of vessels, and vessel densities, in plugs from treated mice were roughly 30% less than those in plugs from untreated mice.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the inhibition of angiogenesis by ascorbate suggested in vitro is confirmed in vivo, and that angiogenesis inhibition may be one mechanis
Mikirova NA, Jackson JA, Hunninghake R, Kenyon J, Chan KW, Swindlehurst CA, Minev B, Patel AN, Murphy MP, Smith L, Alexandrescu DT, Ichim TE, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction is associated with major causes of morbidity and mortality, as well as numerous age-related conditions. The possibility of preserving or even rejuvenating endothelial function offers a potent means of preventing/treating some of the most fearful aspects of aging such as loss of mental, cardiovascular, and sexual function.Endothelial precursor cells (EPC) provide a continual source of replenishment for damaged or senescent blood vessels. In this review we discuss the biological relevance of circulating EPC in a variety of pathologies in order to build the case that these cells act as an endogenous mechanism of regeneration. Factors controlling EPC mobilization, migration, and function, as well as therapeutic interventions based on mobilization of EPC will be reviewed. We conclude by discussing several clinically-relevant approaches to EPC mobilization and provide preliminary data on a food supplement, Stem-Kine, which enhanced EPC mobilization in human subjects.
Ichim TE, Alexandrescu DT, Solano F, Lara F, Campion Rde N, Paris E, Woods EJ, Murphy MP, Dasanu CA, Patel AN, Marleau AM, Leal A, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked musculodegenerative condition consisting of an underlying genetic defect whose manifestation is augmented by inflammatory mechanisms. Previous treatment approaches using gene replacement, exon-skipping or allogeneic cell therapy have been relatively unsuccessful. The only intervention to mediate improvement in survival, albeit minor, is glucocorticoid treatment. Given this modality appears to function via suppression of underlying inflammation; we focus this review on the inflammatory response as a target for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy. In contrast to other cell based therapies attempted in DMD, MSC have the advantages of (a) ability to fuse with and genetically complement dystrophic muscle; (b) possess anti-inflammatory activities; and (c) produce trophic factors that may augment activity of endogenous repair cells. We conclude by describing one practical scenario of stem cell therapy for DMD.
Riordan NH, Ichim TE, Min WP, Wang H, Solano F, Lara F, Alfaro M, Rodriguez JP, Harman RJ, Patel AN, Murphy MP, Lee RR, Minev B.
ABSTRACT: The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is known to contain mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), T regulatory cells, endothelial precursor cells, preadipocytes, as well as anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Safety of autologous adipose tissue implantation is supported by extensive use of this procedure in cosmetic surgery, as well as by ongoing studies using in vitro expanded adipose derived MSC. Equine and canine studies demonstrating anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non-expanded SVF cells have yielded promising results. Although non-expanded SVF cells have been used successfully in accelerating healing of Crohn’s fistulas, to our knowledge clinical use of these cells for systemic immune modulation has not been reported. In this communication we discuss the rationale for use of autologous SVF in treatment of multiple sclerosis and describe our experiences with three patients. Based on this rationale and initial experiences, we propose controlled trials of autologous SVF in various inflammatory conditions.
Zhong Z, Patel AN, Ichim TE, Riordan NH, Wang H, Min WP, Woods EJ, Reid M, Mansilla E, Marin GH, Drago H, Murphy MP, Minev B.
ABSTRACT: Endometrial Regenerative Cells (ERC) are a population of mesenchymal-like stem cells having pluripotent differentiation activity and ability to induce neoangiogenesis. In vitro and animal studies suggest ERC are immune privileged and in certain situations actively suppress ongoing immune responses. In this paper we describe the production of clinical grade ERC and initial safety experiences in 4 patients with multiple sclerosis treated intravenously and intrathecally. The case with the longest follow up, of more than one year, revealed no immunological reactions or treatment associated adverse effects. These preliminary data suggest feasibility of clinical ERC administration and support further studies with this novel stem cell type.
Han X, Meng X, Yin Z, Rogers A, Zhong J, Rillema P, Jackson JA, Ichim TE, Minev B, Carrier E, Patel AN, Murphy MP, Min WP, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Animal studies have demonstrated that selective tropism of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for glioma may be used as a means of selective delivery of cytotoxic payloads. Endometrial Regenerative Cells (ERC) are a population of mesenchymal-like cells which possesse pluripotent differentiation capacity and is characterized by unique surface markers and growth factor production. In this study we sought to determine whether unmanipulated ERC would alter the growth of glioma using the aggressive C6/LacZ7 (C6) into Sprague Dawley rat model. ERC administration by intravenous (i.v.) or intratumoral (i.t.) showed significant inhibition of glioma: volume reduction of 49% after i.v. treatment (p < 0.05), and about 46% i.t. treatment (p < 0.05). Tumor reduction was associated with inhibition of angiogenesis and reduced numbers of CD133 positive cells in the incranial tumor. Despite the angiogenic potential of ERC in the hindlimb ischemia model, these data support a paradoxical tumor inhibitory activity of ERC. Further studies are needed to determine the qualitative differences between physiological angiogenesis, which seems to be supported by ERC and tumor angiogenesis which appeared to be inhibited.
Mikirova NA, Ichim TE, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical doses of ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C, or its salts) have been reported to exert anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. One proposed mechanism involves direct cytotoxicity mediated by accumulation of ascorbic acid radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the extracellular environment of tumor cells. However, therapeutic effects have been reported at concentrations insufficient to induce direct tumor cell death. We hypothesized that AA may exert anti-angiogenic effects. To test this, we expanded endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from peripheral blood and assessed, whether or not high dose AA would inhibit EPC ability to migrate, change energy metabolism, and tube formation ability. We also evaluated the effects of high dose AA on angiogenic activities of HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and HUAECs (human umbilical arterial endothelial cells). According to our data, concentrations of AA higher than 100 mg/dl suppressed capillary-like tube formation on Matrigel for all cells tested and the effect was more pronounced for progenitor cells in comparison with mature cells. Co-culture of differentiated endothelial cells with progenitor cells showed that there was incorporation of EPCs in vessels formed by HUVECs and HUAECs. Cell migration was assessed using an in vitro wound healing model. The results of these experiments showed an inverse correlation between AA concentrations relative to both cell migration and gap filling capacity. Suppression of NO (nitric oxide) generation appeared to be one of the mechanisms by which AA mediated angiostatic effects. This study supports further investigation into non-cytotoxic antitumor activities of AA.
Murphy MP, Wang H, Patel AN, Kambhampati S, Angle N, Chan K, Marleau AM, Pyszniak A, Carrier E, Ichim TE, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is an advanced form of peripheral artery disease which is responsible for approximately 100,000 amputations per year in the US. Trials to date have reported clinical improvement and reduced need for amputation in CLI patients receiving autologous bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells for stimulation of angiogenesis. While such treatments are currently entering Phase III trials, practical and scientific pitfalls will limit widespread implementation if efficacy is proven. Hurdles to be overcome include: a) reduced angiogenic potential of autologous cells in aged patients with cardiovascular risk factors; b) invasiveness/adverse effects of bone marrow extraction and G-CSF mobilization, respectively; and c) need for on-site cellular manipulation. The Endometrial Regenerative Cell (ERC) is a mesenchymal-like stem cell derived from the menstrual blood that is believed to be associated with endometrial angiogenesis. We discuss the possibility of using allogeneic ERCs as an “off the shelf” treatment for CLI based on the following properties: a) High levels of growth factors and matrix metalloprotease production; b) Ability to inhibits inflammatory responses and lack of immunogenicity; and c) Expandability to great quantities without loss of differentiation ability or karyotypic abnormalities.
Mikirova NA, Klykov AA, Jackson JA, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: In our study, we investigated the intracellular killing ability of granulocytes for healthy and ill subjects by measuring NADH oxidase activity and release of hydrogen peroxide. The protocol methodology measured the hydrogen peroxide released after granulocytes activation by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) by using the Amplex Red assay, which included counting granulocytes by flow cytometer and measurement of the kinetic curve of NADPH oxidase activity by fluorometer. Two parameters were used to describe the level of granulocyte activity: the initial rate of NADPH-oxidase enzyme activity and the level of hydrogen peroxide released after 20 min of granulocyte activation. The method was applied to measure granulocyte activity in 55 healthy subjects and 30 patients with cancer. It was demonstrated that applied procedure is sensitive for estimation of the disease activity. The granulocyte activity in patients with cancer was compared with the granulocyte activity of healthy subjects and demonstrated the downregulation of NADPH oxidase activity. We showed that granulocytes of cancer patients had inhibited oxidative burst and less NADPH oxidase activity.
Ichim TE, Zhong Z, Kaushal S, Zheng X, Ren X, Hao X, Joyce JA, Hanley HH, Riordan NH, Koropatnick J, Bogin V, Minev BR, Min WP, Tullis RH.
ABSTRACT: Advances in cancer therapy have been substantial in terms of molecular understanding of disease mechanisms, however these advances have not translated into increased survival in the majority of cancer types. One unsolved problem in current cancer therapeutics is the substantial immune suppression seen in patients. Conventionally, investigations in this area have focused on antigen-nonspecific immune suppressive molecules such as cytokines and T cell apoptosis inducing molecules such as Fas ligand. More recently, studies have demonstrated nanovesicle particles termed exosomes are involved not only in stimulation but also inhibition of immunity in physiological conditions. Interestingly, exosomes secreted by cancer cells have been demonstrated to express tumor antigens, as well as immune suppressive molecules such as PD-1L and FasL. Concentrations of exosomes from plasma of cancer patients have been associated with spontaneous T cell apoptosis, which is associated in some situations with shortened survival. In this paper we place the “exosome-immune suppression” concept in perspective of other tumor immune evasion mechanisms. We conclude by discussing a novel therapeutic approach to cancer immune suppression by extracorporeal removal of exosomes using hollow fiber filtration technology.
Leal A, Ichim TE, Marleau AM, Lara F, Kaushal S, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is the most clinically advanced form of cell therapy, second to hematopoietic stem cell transplants. To date, MSC have been used for immune modulation in conditions such as Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) and Crohn’s Disease, for which Phase III clinical trials are currently in progress. Here, we review the immunological properties of MSC and make a case for their use in treatment of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1), a group of inherited peripheral neuropathies. CMT1 is characterized by demyelination and aberrant immune activation making this condition an ideal target for exploration of MSC therapy, given the ability of these cells to promote sheath regeneration as well as suppress inflammation. Studies supporting this hypothesis will be presented and placed into the context of other cell-based approaches that are theoretically feasible. Given that MSCs selectively home to areas of inflammation, as well as exert effects in an allogeneic manner, the possibility of an “off the shelf” therapy for CMT1 will be discussed.
Ichim TE, Solano F, Brenes R, Glenn E, Chang J, Chan K, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Regenerative treatment of dilated, non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy represents a significant unmet clinical need. Intracoronary administration of autologous bone marrow stem cells has demonstrated positive results in treatment of post-infarct and chronic ischaemic patients. Limitations of this procedure include: invasiveness of bone marrow extraction and cardiac catheterization, and dependence on stem cell populations that are aged and possibly senescent. Here, the use of intravenously administered allogeneic placental matrix derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy is discussed. Safety of this cell population has already been established in completed Phase I and II trials; however, to date, clinical implementation for dilated cardiomyopathy has not been reported. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells: (i) inhibit myocardial inflammation; (ii) inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis; (iii) stimulate angiogenesis; and (iv) display therapeutic activity in models of dilated cardiomyopathy. Clinical studies have demonstrated the ability of mesenchymal stem cells to inhibit post-infarct remodelling, as well as potently block inflammatory processes in graft versus host and Crohn disease. Presented here is case report of a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy treated with intravenous allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells and expanded umbilical cord blood CD34 cells who underwent a profound clinical improvement.
Duconge J, Miranda-Massari JR, Gonzalez MJ, Jackson JA, Warnock W, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: There is a strong advocacy movement for large doses of vitamin C. Some authors argue that the biological half-life for vitamin C at high plasma levels is about 30 minutes, but these reports are the subject of some controversy. NIH researchers established the current RDA based upon tests conducted 12 hours (24 half lives) after consumption. The dynamic flow model refutes the current low-dose recommendations for dietary intakes and links Pauling’s mega-dose suggestions with other reported effects of massive doses of ascorbate for the treatment of disease. Although, a couple of controlled clinical studies conducted at The Mayo Clinic did not support a significant benefit for terminal cancer patients after 10 grams of once-a-day oral vitamin C, other clinical trials have demonstrated that ascorbate may indeed be effective against tumors when administered intravenously. Recent studies confirmed that plasma vitamin C concentrations vary substantially with the route of administration. Only by intravenous administration, the necessary ascorbate levels to kill cancer cells are reached in both plasma and urine. Because the efficacy of vitamin C treatment cannot be judged from clinical trials that use only oral dosing, the role of vitamin C in cancer treatment should be reevaluated. One limitation of current studies is that pharmacokinetic data at high intravenous doses of vitamin C are sparse, particularly in cancer patients. This fact needs prompt attention to understand the significance of intravenous vitamin C administration. This review describes the current state-of-the-art in oral and intravenous vitamin C pharmacokinetics. In addition, the governmental recommendations of dose and frequency of vitamin C intake will also be addressed.
Ichim TE, Zheng X, Suzuki M, Kubo N, Zhang X, Min LR, Beduhn ME, Riordan NH, Inman RD, Min WP.
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy offers the promise of antigen-specific suppression of pathological immune responses in conditions such as autoimmunity and organ transplantation. Substantial advances have been made in recent years in terms of understanding basic immunological mechanisms of autoreactivity, as well as clinically implementing immune-based therapies that are antigen nonspecific.
OBJECTIVE: To provide an integrated overview of the current state of the art in terms of antigen-specific tolerance induction, as well as to predict future directions for the field.
METHODS: Examples of successes and failures of antigen-specific immunotherapy were sought. Particular attention was paid to the well-established collagen II-induced model of arthritis.
RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Previous failures of antigen-specific immunotherapy were associated with lack of identification of clinically relevant antigens, as well as inappropriate tolerogenic methodologies. The advances in proteomics combined with novel gene-specific immune modulatory techniques place today’s translational researchers in a unique position to tackle the problem of antigen-specific immunotherapeutic protocols.
Meng X, Ichim TE, Zhong J, Rogers A, Yin Z, Jackson J, Wang H, Ge W, Bogin V, Chan KW, Thébaud B, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is a critical component of the proliferative endometrial phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, we hypothesized that a stem cell-like population exist and can be isolated from menstrual blood. Mononuclear cells collected from the menstrual blood contained a subpopulation of adherent cells which could be maintained in tissue culture for >68 doublings and retained expression of the markers CD9, CD29, CD41a, CD44, CD59, CD73, CD90 and CD105, without karyotypic abnormalities. Proliferative rate of the cells was significantly higher than control umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells, with doubling occurring every 19.4 hours. These cells, which we termed “Endometrial Regenerative Cells” (ERC) were capable of differentiating into 9 lineages: cardiomyocytic, respiratory epithelial, neurocytic, myocytic, endothelial, pancreatic, hepatic, adipocytic, and osteogenic. Additionally, ERC produced MMP3, MMP10, GM-CSF, angiopoietin-2 and PDGF-BB at 10-100,000 fold higher levels than two control cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cell lines. Given the ease of extraction and pluripotency of this cell population, we propose ERC as a novel alternative to current stem cells sources.
Ichim TE, Solano F, Glenn E, Morales F, Smith L, Zabrecky G, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions whose incidence is reaching epidemic proportions, afflicting approximately 1 in 166 children. Autistic disorder, or autism is the most common form of ASD. Although several neurophysiological alterations have been associated with autism, immune abnormalities and neural hypoperfusion appear to be broadly consistent. These appear to be causative since correlation of altered inflammatory responses, and hypoperfusion with symptology is reported. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are in late phases of clinical development for treatment of graft versus host disease and Crohn’s Disease, two conditions of immune dysregulation. Cord blood CD34+ cells are known to be potent angiogenic stimulators, having demonstrated positive effects in not only peripheral ischemia, but also in models of cerebral ischemia. Additionally, anecdotal clinical cases have reported responses in autistic children receiving cord blood CD34+ cells. We propose the combined use of MSC and cord blood CD34+cells may be useful in the treatment of autism.
Duconge J, Miranda-Massari JR, González MJ, Taylor PR, Riordan HD, Riordan NH, Casciari JJ, Alliston K.
Riordan NH, Chan K, Marleau AM, Ichim TE.
ABSTRACT: Cord blood is currently used as an alternative to bone marrow as a source of stem cells for hematopoietic reconstitution after ablation. It is also under intense preclinical investigation for a variety of indications ranging from stroke, to limb ischemia, to myocardial regeneration. A major drawback in the current use of cord blood is that substantial morbidity and mortality are associated with pre-transplant ablation of the recipient hematopoietic system. Here we raise the possibility that due to unique immunological properties of both the stem cell and non-stem cell components of cord blood, it may be possible to utilize allogeneic cells for regenerative applications without needing to fully compromise the recipient immune system. Issues raised will include: graft versus host potential, the immunogenicity of the cord blood graft, and the parallels between cord blood transplantation and fetal to maternal trafficking. The previous use of unmatched cord blood in absence of any immune ablation, as well as potential steps for widespread clinical implementation of allogeneic cord blood grafts will also be discussed.
Marleau AM, Lipton JH, Riordan NH, Ichim TE.
ABSTRACT: The potent clinical responses seen in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after administration of donor-specific lymphocytes, as well as the correlation between the presence of antigen specific T cells and prolonged remission in these patients, suggests a role for the immunological control of CML. Here we propose Aldara, a clinically used formulation of imiquimod, as an agent for augmenting immune responses to CML antigens. Our proposition is based upon 3 tenets: 1) Endogenous dendritic cells (DC) of CML patients, which are known to be derived from the malignant clone, express and present various leukemic antigens; 2) CML-antigen reactive T cell clones exist in the patient but in many situations are ineffectively stimulated to cause significant hematological responses; and 3) Antigen presentation by mature, activated DC, which endogenously express CML-antigens may endow the pre-existing ineffective T cell responses with ability to control CML progression. The practical use of Aldara as a localized activator of DC in the context of present day leukemic therapeutics, as well as various properties of this unique immune modulator will be discussed.
González MJ, Herrera FL, Miranda-Massari JM, Guzmán AM, Riordan NH, Ricart CM.
ABSTRACT: Many mathematical models have been proposed to study tumor growth parameters in vivo. Nevertheless most of the medical models have given variable results even when experimental conditions are exactly the same. There are multiple factors that are capable of affecting tumor growth that should be taken into account when proposing a mathematical model for tumor growth in vivo. We discuss here own proposed model for tumor growth kinetics utilizing a modified Gompertz function that better responds to the growth characteristic of in “vivo” tumors.
Zhong Z, Kusznieruk KP, Popov IA, Riordan NH, Izadi H, Yijian L, Sher S, Szczurko OM, Agadjanyan MG, Tullis RH, Harandi A, Reznik BN, Mamikonyan GV, Ichim TE.
ABSTRACT: Historically cancer vaccines have yielded suboptimal clinical results. We have developed a novel strategy for eliciting antitumor immunity based upon homology between neoplastic tissue and the developing placenta. Placenta formation shares several key processes with neoplasia, namely: angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteases, and active suppression of immune function. Immune responses against xenoantigens are well known to break self-tolerance. Utilizing xenogeneic placental protein extracts as a vaccine, we have successfully induced anti-tumor immunity against B16 melanoma in C57/BL6 mice, whereas control xenogeneic extracts and B16 tumor extracts where ineffective, or actually promoted tumor growth, respectively. Furthermore, dendritic cells were able to prime tumor immunity when pulsed with the placental xenoantigens. While vaccination-induced tumor regression was abolished in mice depleted of CD4 T cells, both CD4 and CD8 cells were needed to adoptively transfer immunity to naïve mice. Supporting the role of CD8 cells in controlling tumor growth are findings that only freshly isolated CD8 cells from immunized mice were capable of inducing tumor cell caspases-3 activation ex vivo. These data suggest feasibility of using xenogeneic placental preparations as a multivalent vaccine potently targeting not just tumor antigens, but processes that are essential for tumor maintenance of malignant potential.
Riordan HD, Casciari JJ, González MJ, Riordan NH, Miranda-Massari JR, Taylor P, Jackson JA.
ABSTRACT: Case studies suggest that vitamin C, given intravenously at doses of 10-100 grams/day can improve patient well being and in some cases, reduce tumor size. While ascorbate is generally considered safe, clinical data on high intravenous doses is limited. Twenty-four late stage terminal cancer patients were given continuous infusions of 150 to 710 mg/kg/day for up to eight weeks. Blood chemistry and blood count profiles were obtained at roughly one-week intervals while patient health, adverse events and tumor progression were monitored. The majority of patients were vitamin C deficient prior to treatment. Intravenous infusions increased plasma ascorbate concentrations to a mean of 1.1 mM. The most common adverse events reported were nausea, edema, and dry mouth or skin; and these were generally minor. Two Grade 3 adverse events ‘possibly related’ to the agent were reported: one patient with a history of renal calculi developed a kidney stone after thirteen days of treatment and another patient experienced hypokalemia after six weeks of treatment. White blood cell counts were stable while hemoglobin and hematocrit levels dropped slightly during treatment, consistent with trends observed prior to therapy. Blood creatinine, BUN, glucose, and uric acid concentrations decreased or remained stable during therapy, suggesting that ascorbate infusions did not adversely affect renal function. One patient had stable disease and continued the treatment for forty-eight weeks. These data suggest that intravenous vitamin C therapy for cancer is relatively safe, provided the patient does not have a history of kidney stone formation.
Ichim TE, Popov IA, Riordan NH, Izadi H, Zhong Z, Yijian L, Sher S, Oleinik EK.
ABSTRACT: The dendritic cell (DC) possesses the ability to stimulate both T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses depending on activation stimuli. Although it is known that chemically or genetically modified DC can be used therapeutically to steer immune responses towards either Th1 or Th2, cellular therapy with ex vivo manipulated DC is clinically difficult. Here we demonstrate a novel method of switching immune responses from Th1 to Th2 through in vivo immune modulation by administration of siRNA. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting of the IL-12p35 gene leads to a Th2 bias in vitro through an IL-10 dependent mechanism. In vivo administration of siRNA admixed with the oil-based contrast agent lipiodol in the presence of antigen and adjuvant induced a deviation in recall response to reduced production of IFN-gamma and augmented IL-4 response using either KLH or ovalbumin. This simple method of in vivo modification of immune response possesses therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and autoimmune diabetes.
Meng X, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: When a wound occurs, growth and repair genes (GR genes, such as oncogenes, proto-oncogenes, etc.) in surrounding cells are activated and secretion of growth and repair factors (GR factors, such as growth, stem cell, and stimulating factors, etc.) is induced to heal the wound. However, if the wound is persistent due to chronic physical (radiation, electromagnetic field, trauma, particles, etc.), chemical (carcinogens, toxic chemicals, heavy metals etc.) or biological (aging, free radicals, inflammation, nutrient deficiency, bacteria and virus infections, stress, etc.) damage, amplification of GR gene activation in surrounding cells may lead to a clinical cancer. Based on the commonalities between cancer and wound healing, a new hypothesis of cancer is presented: malignancies are not passive mutated useless masses; rather, they are functional tissues produced by GR gene activation to secrete GR factors in an effort to heal persistent wounds in the body. Based on the hypothesis, current cancer treatments aimed at killing cancer cells only may be misguided. The logical extension of the hypothesis is that cancer treatment focused on wound healing by limiting causes of persistent wounds, providing repair cells, GR factors, and substrates required by repair cells may yield more fruitful results than treatments focused on killing cancer cells alone. Spontaneous regressions of cancer, although rare, may be successful examples of serendipitous spontaneous wound healing. Standard therapies aimed at killing cancer cells, should be limited to adjuvant status for limiting symptoms or buying time for completion of the wound healing process. Attempts to destroy cancer cells without healing underlying persistent wounds will allow for eventual recurrence.
González MJ, Miranda-Massari JR, Mora EM, Guzmán A, Riordan NH, Riordan HD, Casciari JJ, Jackson JA, Román-Franco A.
ABSTRACT: The effect of ascorbic acid on cancer has been a subject of great controversy. This is a follow-up review of the 1979 article by Cameron, Pauling, and Leibovitz published in Cancer Research. In this updated version, the authors address general aspects of ascorbic acid and cancer that have been presented before, while reviewing, analyzing, and updating new existing literature on the subject. In addition, they present and discuss their own mechanistic hypothesis on the effect of ascorbic acid on the cancer cell. The objective of this review is to provide an updated scientific basis for the use of ascorbic acid, especially intravenously as adjuvant treatment in pharmacological nutritional oncology.
Riordan HD, Riordan NH, Jackson JA, Casciari JJ, Hunninghake R, González MJ, Mora EM, Miranda-Massari JR, Rosario N, Rivera A.
ABSTRACT: A series of seven cases are presented in which intravenous vitamin C has been used as antineoplastic agent in the treatment of different types of cancers. The cancers cases reviewed are the following: Renal cell carcinoma (2), Colorectal cancer (1), Pancreatic cancer (1), Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (2) and breast cancer (1). Toxic reactions were not observed at these high doses of intravenous Vitamin C. All patients were prescreened for Glucose 6–phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency before administering intravenous Vitamin C in order to prevent hemolysis.
Meng X, Riordan NH, Riordan HD, Mikirova N, Jackson J, González MJ, Miranda-Massari JR, Mora E, Trinidad Castillo W.
ABSTRACT: Twenty-eight fatty acids (C8:0 to C24:l n-9) were measured by gas chromatography in four normal cell lines (C3H / 10T1 / 2, CCD-18Co, CCD-25SK and CCD-37Lu) and seven cancer cell lines (C-41, Caov-3, LS-180, PC-3, SK-MEL-28, SK-MES-1 and U-87 MG). Results show differences in the content and proportions of fatty acids when comparing cancer cell lines with their normal counterparts. Cancer cell lines showed lower C20: 4 n-6, C24:1 n-9, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) and ratios of C20:4 n-6 to C20:5 n-3 and C16:0 to C18:1 n-9 and stearic to oleic (SA/OA) than their normal counterparts. All cancer cell lines had SA/OA ratios lower than 7.0 while normal cell lines had ratios greater than 0.7 (p<0.05). In addition, the ratios of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) to PUFA'S and the concentration of C18:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6, C20:5 n-3 were higher in cancer cell lines as compared to normal cell lines. A positive correlation was detected between C16:0 and longer SFA'S (r = +0.511, p<0.05) in normal cell lines whereas a negative correlation (r=0.608, p<0.05) was obtained for malignant cell lines. Moreover, cancerous cell lines exhibited a particular desaturation defect and an abnormal incorporation of C18:2 n-6 and C20-4 n-6 fatty acids.
Han SS, Kim K, Hahm ER, Lee SJ, Surh YJ, Park HK, Kim WS, Jung CW, Lee MH, Park K, Yang JH, Yoon SS, Riordan NH, Riordan HD, Kimler BF, Park CH, Lee JH, Park S.
ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that L-ascorbic acid (LAA) is selectively toxic to some types of cancer cells at pharmacological concentrations, functioning as a pro-oxidant rather than as an anti-oxidant. However, the molecular mechanisms by which LAA initiates cellular signaling leading to cell death are still unclear. In an effort to gain insight into these mechanisms, the effects of LAA on eukaryotic transcription nuclear factor NF-kappaB and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were investigated. In the present study, LAA suppressed DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB, composed of a p65/p50 heterodimer, through inhibition of degradation of inhibitory kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha) and prevention of nuclear translocation of p65. The inhibitory effect of LAA on NF-kappaB activity was dependent upon glutathione levels in HL-60 cells, as well as generation of H2O2 but not superoxide anion. LAA also downregulated the expression of COX-2, which has a NF-kappaB binding site on its promoter, through repressing NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. Moreover, cotreatment of 1 microM arsenic trioxide (As2O3) with various concentrations of LAA enhanced an LAA-induced repression of NF-kappaB activity and COX-2 expression. In conclusion, our data suggest that LAA exerts its anti-tumor activity through downregulation of NF-kappaB activity and COX-2 expression, and these inhibitory effects can be enhanced by co-treatment with As2O3.
Riordan HD, Hunninghake RB, Riordan NH, Jackson JJ, Meng X, Taylor P, Casciari JJ, González MJ, Miranda-Massari JR, Mora EM, Rosario N, Rivera A.
ABSTRACT: High dose intravenous(i.v.) ascorbic acid (AA) has been used as therapy for infectious disease from bacterial and viral origin and adjuvant therapy for cancer. In this publication we describe a clinical protocol that has been developed over the past twenty years utilizing high dose i.v. AA as therapy for cancer. This includes principles of treatment, rationale, baseline workup, infusion protocol, precautions and side effects.
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, Ricci A, Geroulakos G, Ippolito E, Brandolini R, Vinciguerra G, Dugall M, Griffin M, Ruffini I, Acerbi G, Corsi M, Riordan NH, Stuard S, Bavera P, Di Renzo A, Kenyon J, Errichi BM.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of edema, and superficial and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis with an oral profibrinolytic agent (Flite Tabs, 150 mg pinokinase, Aidan, Tempe, AZ, USA) in long-haul flights (7-8 hours), in high-risk subjects. A group of 300 subjects was included; 76 were excluded for several problems including concomitant treatments; 204 were randomized into 2 groups (active treatment or placebo) to evaluate the effects of prophylaxis with Flite Tabs. An exercise program was used in both groups. The femoral, popliteal, tibial, and superficial veins were scanned with ultrasound before and within 90 minutes after flights. Of the included subjects, 92 of 103 controls and 94 of 101 treated subjects completed the study. Dropouts were due to connection problems. Age, gender, and risk distribution were comparable in the groups. In the treatment group, no DVT was observed. In the control group, 5 subjects (5.4%) had a DVT and there were 2 superficial thromboses (7 events in 92 subjects; 7.6%). At inclusion, edema was comparable in the 2 groups. After flights there was an increase in score in controls (+12%) in comparison with a decrease (-15%) in the Flite Tabs group (the difference in variation was statistically significant). Intention-to-treat analysis for thrombotic events shows 18 failures in controls (11 lost to follow-up + 7 thrombotic events) of 92 subjects (19.6%) in comparison with 7 failures (of 94 subjects, equivalent to 7.4%) in the treatment group (p < 0.05). Events were asymptomatic. In conclusion, Flite Tabs were effective in reducing thrombotic events and in controlling edema in high-risk subjects in long flights.
Meng XL, Riordan NH, Casciari JJ, Zhu Y, Zhong J, González MJ, Miranda-Massari JR, Riordan HD.
BACKGROUND: Plant materials represent promising sources of anti-cancer agents. We developed and tested a novel extract from the ubiquitous plant Convolvulus arvensis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convolvulus arvensis components were extracted in boiling water, and small molecules were removed by high-pressure filtration. The extract’s biological activity was assessed by measuring its effects on S-180 fibrosarcoma growth in Kun Ming mice and on heparin-induced angiogenesis in chick embryos. We also examined the extract’s effects on lymphocytes ex vivo and tumor cell growth in vitro.
RESULTS: The extract (primarily proteins and polysaccharides) inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent fashion when administered orally. At the highest dose tested, 200 mg/kg/day, tumor growth was inhibited by roughly seventy percent. Subcutaneous or intraperitoneal administration at 50 mg/kg/day also inhibited tumor growth by over seventy percent. The extract’s acute LD50 in Kun Ming mice was 500 mg/kg/day when injected, indicating that tumor growth inhibition occurred at non-toxic doses. It inhibited angiogenesis in chick embryos, improved lymphocyte survival ex vivo, and enhanced yeast phagocytosis, but did not kill tumor cells in culture.
CONCLUSION: High molecular mass extract deserves further study as an anti-cancer agent.
González MJ, Miranda-Massari JR, Mora EM, Jiménez IZ, Matos MI, Riordan HD, Casciari JJ, Riordan NH, Rodríguez M, Guzmán A.
ABSTRACT: The effect of vitamin C in cancer has been a subject of great controversy; mainly because of the inconsistent results obtained by oral intakes of ascorbate when used as an anticancer agent. We believe the intravenous application of ascorbate will provide more consistent results in cancer patients since Vitamin C blood levels attained are substantially higher in a range proven cytotoxic to malignant cells. In this article we will present and discuss our proposed mechanism on the chemotherapeutic activity exhibited by ascorbate.
González MJ, Mora EM, Miranda-Massari JR, Matta J, Riordan HD, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: We tested the effect of different concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), 50, 100, 250 mg/500 mg/dL) with copper sulfate (CS), 10 mg/dL) on human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB231) cell proliferation in vitro. Cell proliferation was measured using a colori-metric assay (Cell proliferation kit II (XTT), Boehringer, NJ). The results of the mean absorbance of the tissue culture at different AA concentrations and a constant CS concentration were as follow: 0.82 +/- 0.03 (control, mean +/- SE), 0.64 +/- 0.02 (CS above); 0.48 +/- 0.03 (50 mg/dL) AA), 0.21 +/- 0.02 (100 mg/dL), 0.08 +/- 0.01 (250 mg/dL) AA, 0.60 +/- 0.05 (500 mg/dL). These results show that a combination of AA and CS inhibits human breast carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro. This cell proliferation inhibitory effect is directly proportional to the AA concentration with the exception of the 500 mg/dL AA dose. This chemotherapeutic effect was optimally enhanced when AA was added at a concentration of 250 mg/dL. The AA concentrations of 500 mg/dL had a biphasic effect on tumor cell proliferation probably due to back and forth redox reactions between AA and dehydroascorbic acid in a closed system. This study provides preliminary evidence that AA and SC can be used as biological response modifiers (BRM) for tumor growth inhibition.
Casciari JJ, Riordan NH, Schmidt TL, Meng XL, Jackson JA, Riordan HD.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin C (ascorbate) is toxic to tumour cells, and has been suggested as an adjuvant cancer treatment. Our goal was to determine if ascorbate, in combination with other antioxidants, could kill cells in the SW620 hollow fibre in vitro solid tumour model at clinically achievable concentrations. Ascorbate anti-cancer efficacy, alone or in combination with lipoic acid, vitamin K3, phenyl ascorbate, or doxorubicin, was assessed using annexin V staining and standard survival assays. 2-day treatments with 10 mM ascorbate increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in SW620 hollow fibre tumours. Lipoic acid synergistically enhanced ascorbate cytotoxicity, reducing the 2-day LC(50)in hollow fibre tumours from 34 mM to 4 mM. Lipoic acid, unlike ascorbate, was equally effective against proliferating and non-proliferating cells. Ascorbate levels in human blood plasma were measured during and after intravenous ascorbate infusions. Infusions of 60 g produced peak plasma concentrations exceeding 20 mM with an area under the curve (24 h) of 76 mM h. Thus, tumoricidal concentrations may be achievable in vivo. Ascorbate efficacy was enhanced in an additive fashion by phenyl ascorbate or vitamin K3. The effect of ascorbate on doxorubicin efficacy was concentration dependent; low doses were protective while high doses increased cell killing.
González MJ, Miranda-Massari JR, Mora EM, Cruzado NA, Jiménez I, Rosa M, Matos Vera MI, Santiago C, Román-Eyxarch MI, Rodríguez JR, Pérez Cortés C, Riordan NH, Riordan HD, Ricart CM.
ABSTRACT: The use of alternative/complementary medicine has been increasing considerably. Conventional medicine must begin to address issues related to the use, safety, regulation, research and education of alternative/complementary medicine. Integrative medicine combines conventional medicine and alternative complementary practices. Integrative medicine is an innovative approach to medicine and medical education. It involves the understanding of the interaction of the mind, body and spirit and how to interpret this relationship in the dynamics of health and disease. Integrative medicine shifts the orientation of the medical practice from disease based approach to a healing based approach. It does not reject conventional medicine nor uncritically accepts unconventional practices. Integrative medicine is an effective, more fulfilling human approach to medicine based on the benefit of the patient by following good medicine practices in a scientific manner.
González MJ, Riordan NH.
ABSTRACT: Lipid peroxidation has been shown to both enhance carcinogenesis and to have an anticarcinogenic effect. This paradox is of great relevance to the fields of free radical biology, biochemistry, pathology, nutrition and oncology among others and needs to be addressed. A proper understanding of this issue can be a key to more effective treatment of malignant tumors in the near future.
Riordan NH, Riordan HD, Meng X, Li Y, Jackson JA.
ABSTRACT: Ascorbic acid and its salts (AA) are preferentially toxic to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Given in high enough doses to maintain plasma concentrations above levels that have been shown to be toxic to tumor cells in vitro, AA has the potential to selectively kill tumor cells in a manner similar to other tumor cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Most studies of AA and cancer to date have not utilized high enough doses of AA to maintain tumor cytotoxic plasma concentrations of AA. Data are presented which demonstrate the ability to sustain plasma levels of AA in humans above levels which are toxic to tumor cells in vitro and suggests the feasibility of using AA as a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent.
Riordan HD, Riordan NH, Meng X, Zhong J, Jackson JA.
ABSTRACT: An improved method has been developed to count cells in situ based on the measurement of esterase activity with carboxyfluorescein diacetate. This sensitive, semiautomated microplate fluorometer assay was able to estimate viable cell numbers over a range of 5 x 10(2) to 2.6 x 10(5) cells/well in a tumor cell line. Sensitivity to 10(3) was demonstrated in two other cell lines. Sub- and supranormal fluorescence events which can be responsible for unreliable readings when using a fluorescence assay for cell counting were quantified in a menadione (cytotoxic agent)/U-87 MG (cell line) model. There was a close correlation between the fluorometer method and Coulter counter method for two different tumor cell lines when this method was performed on cells after sub- and supranormal fluorescence events had ceased.
Neil Riordan 6-26-2011